Government Documents

April 4, 2012

D-Day 1944

Filed under: — Helena Marvin @ 11:05 pm

Government Views of D-Day 1944

This page last updated June 3rd, 2009

“On 6 June 1944 the Western Allies landed in northern France, opening the long-awaited ‘Second Front’ against Adolf Hitler’s Germany. … Commanded by U.S. Army General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Normandy assault phase, code-named “Neptune” (the entire operation was “Overlord”), was launched when weather reports predicted satisfactory conditions on 6 June.

Hundreds of amphibious ships and craft, supported by combatant warships, crossed the English Channel behind dozens of minesweepers. They arrived off the beaches before dawn. Three divisions of paratroopers (two American, one British) had already been dropped inland. Following a brief bombardment by ships’ guns, Soldiers of six divisions (three American, two British
and one Canadian) stormed ashore in five main landing areas, named “Utah”, “Omaha”, “Gold”, “Juno” and “Sword.” After hard fighting, especially on “Omaha” Beach, by day’s end a foothold was well established.”
Above taken from “Normandy Invasion – June 1944,” U.S. Navy (see below under “Photographs”)


Air Operations History Oral/Personal Histories
Allied Commanders King George VI Participants & Actions
Art & D-Day Lesson Plans Photographs
The Beaches Maps Preparations & Planning
Canada Meaning of the Term D-Day President Roosevelt
The Coast Guard Medal of Honor Prime Minister Churchill
Code Talkers Mulberry Harbors Quartermasters
D-Day Plus Museums Tanks
General Eisenhower Naval Operations Underwater Archaeology
German Commanders, Troops & Defenses New Zealand War Graves & Memorials
German View of D-Day Newspapers & Radio Weather
Higgins Boats Operation Bodyguard


Air Operations

The Air Forces and Airborne Troops

“D-Day could not have happened without support from the air. The Royal Air Force, United States Army Air Force, and other Allied air force units and personnel provided protection and support as the fleet crossed the English Channel and as the troops landed on the beaches. Airborne troops landed by glider and parachute on both flanks of the beach landings, to defend against German counter-attacks.”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_airforce.htm

The Air Operations in Support of the Landings
“The Allied plan for supporting the landings was divided into several specific goals. This series of attacks had begun the previous year with the steady interdiction of the transport network in northern and western France to prevent the rapid reinforcement of the beachhead area. … Finally, in the build up to the invasion itself, two more elements of air power came into play. Fighter sweeps and standing air patrols were flown to prevent any German air activity over the channel ports and invasion area. … The transport air forces brought both men and supplies to the beachead area in vast numbers. Transport gliders and paratroopers were flown into the area behind the beachead to disrupt the organisation of German land forces.”
The Royal Air Force

http://www.raf.mod.uk/dday/

Air Operations – The Invasion of Normandy
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF284a.jpg

Air Power Over the Normandy Beaches and Beyond
Richard P. Hallion, Air Force Historian

Air Force History and Museums Program
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/AAF-H-DDay/

Allied Soldiers killed in Glider Crash – Damaged Glider in Background
N.B…. This is a graphic photo
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71×116.jpg

Campbell Gray – 5th Battalion (Scottish) Parachute Regiment
“It was one o’clock in the morning, and I was 500ft over Normandy waiting to jump from a Stirling bomber. I was one of the vast numbers of airborne forces involved in Operation Overlord.”
WII : The People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/ww2/A1951490

D-Day Airborne Drop Zones and Objectives
Map
Canada’s Digital Collections
href="http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg">http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg

D-Day Planes
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF017b.jpg

Eighth Air Force Tactical Operations in Support of Allied Landings in Normandy: 2 June – 17 June 1944
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Report_of_the_Eighth_Air_Force.pdf (PDF)

German Army Headquarters in Normandy attacked by fighter-bombers of the Second Tactical Air Force
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 4

Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg

Gliders bring in Supplies to U.S. Army Troops fighting on Utah Beach, Les Dunes De Madeleine, France, June 6, 1944

Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/70232.pdf (PDF)

Normandy
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text
Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c10.html

Pre Invasion Air Attacks
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 8
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg

Prelude to Invasion
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 9
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c9.html

Paratroopers Drop In: 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion on D-Day
Video Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Television Archives
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7867/conflict_war/d-day/clip3

Report of the 82nd Airborne Division: “Operation Neptune” at Normandy
6 June – 8 July 1944
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/1944_06_06-07_08_82nd_Airborne.pdf (PDF)

Third Battalion, 325th Glider Infantry
“The Forcing of the Merderet Causeway at La Fiere, France” (9 June 1944)

S.L.A. Marshall
“These facts were developed at a battalion critique in Leicester, England, on 2-3 August, 1944, with all surviving officers and NCOs present. In the narrative, the witnesses are self-identifying.”
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 BB 4
Center of Military History, U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lafiere/325-LaF.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lafiere/325-LaF.htm

WWII 8th Air Force Combat Chronology : January 1944 through June 1944
“In all, 1,729 bombers drop 3,596 tons of bombs during D-Day.”
Eighth Air Force Historical Society

href="http://www.8thafhs.org/combat1944a.htm">http://www.8thafhs.org/combat1944a.htm

Go to: Air Operations
Go to: Table of Contents


Allied Commanders

See also: D-Day Planning – Allied Command
See also: General Eisenhower

Allied Commanders

General Bernard Montgomery

COSSAC

Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay

General Omar Bradley

General Theodore Roosevelt Jr.

General J. Lawton Collins


Allied Commanders

The Allied Commanders
jpeg image of January 1944 meeting of Operation Overlord Commanders, General Eisenhower, Walter B. Smith, Omar Bradley, Arthur Tedder, Bernard Montgomery, Trafford Leigh-Mallory and Bertram Ramsay
The Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Photo663092.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Photo663092.jpg

Senior Officers on the U.S.S. Augusta
“Senior U.S. officers watching operations from the bridge of USS Augusta (CA-31), off Normandy, 8 June 1944. They are (from left to right): Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, USN, Commander Western Naval Task Force; Lieutenant General Omar N. Bradley, U.S. Army, Commanding General, U.S. First Army; Rear Admiral Arthur D. Struble, USN, (with binoculars) Chief of Staff for RAdm. Kirk and Major General Hugh Keen, U.S. Army.”
jpeg image, U.S. Navy Photograph
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g250000/g252940.jpg">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g250000/g252940.jpg

Senior U.S. Army officers on board USS Ancon (AGC-4), 5 June 1944
“Senior U.S. Army officers on board USS Ancon (AGC-4), 5 June 1944, the day before Allied forces landed on Normandy.
They are, from left to right:
Major General C.J. Huebner, Commanding General, First Division; Major General L.T. Gerow, Commanding General, Fifth Corps; and
Brigadier General W.M. Hoge.
Ancon was command ship for the “Omaha” Beach assault.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h99000/h99216.jpg

U.S. Army World War II Corps Commanders: A Composite Biography
Robert H. Berlin
Combat Studies Institute (CSI) Report
Command & General Staff College
href="http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Berlin2/BERLIN2.asp">http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Berlin2/BERLIN2.asp (HTML)
href="http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/berlin2.pdf">http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/berlin2.pdf (PDF)

World War II Division Commanders
LTC Gary Wade
Combat Studies Institute (CSI) Report
Command & General Staff College
href="http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/wade2/wade2.asp">http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/wade2/wade2.asp (HTML)
href="http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/worldwar.pdf">http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/worldwar.pdf (PDF)

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


COSSAC (Chief of Staff to Supreme Allied Commander)

History of COSSAC (Chief of Staff to Supreme Allied Commander) 1943 – 1944
“It was agreed at Casablanca [January 1943] … that the work of preparing for the grand assault on the fortress of Europe must go forward … For the present it was decided to appoint a Chief of Staff to the Supreme Commander, under whom would be established a United States–British staff … It was expected that the Supreme Commander ultimately to be appointed would be a British general and that he would have an American deputy, so the nomination of the Chief of Staff was decided on parallel lines. Lieut-General F. E. Morgan was appointed to this post, with Brig-General R. W. Barker, of the U.S. Army, (who had previously been associated with the Combined Commanders) as his deputy. To these men accordingly
fell the task of building up the organization which was to plan the allied invasion of North-West Europe.”

Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.6A CA
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/cossac/Cossac.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/cossac/Cossac.htm

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


General Omar Bradley

The Allied Commanders
jpeg image of January 1944 meeting of Operation Overlord Commanders: General Eisenhower, Walter B. Smith, Omar Bradley, Arthur Tedder, Bernard Montgomery, Trafford Leigh-Mallory and Bertram Ramsay
General Bradley is on the far left
The Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Photo663092.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Photo663092.jpg

Biography of General Omar Bradley

This biography includes a number of images/photos including several Time and Life magazine covers that featured the General and photographs of his funeral procession.
Arlington National Cemetery
http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/omarnels.htm

“General Omar Bradley [and] General Dwight D. Eisenhower shaking hands with Sergeant Richard Gallager, New York, NY after presenting him with the Distinguished Service Medal. On Gallager’s right is Corporal Stanley Appleby, Clarksville, NY, members of the US 1st Division.”
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/66×738.jpg

Omar N. Bradley – Bibliography
This bibliography includes Internet Resources, Books, Documents, Periodicals and Videos

Diana Simpson
Bibliographer, Air University Library
http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/great/brad.htm

Omar Nelson Bradley

This biography of General Bradley includes a discussion of the General’s participation in both the planning and execution of the Normandy Campaign.
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/bradley/bradley.htm

Senior Officers on the U.S.S. Augusta off Normandy – 8 June 1944
“Senior U.S. officers watching operations from the bridge of USS Augusta (CA-31), off Normandy, 8 June 1944. They are (from left to right): Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, USN, Commander Western Naval Task Force; Lieutenant General Omar N. Bradley, U.S. Army, Commanding General, U.S. First Army; Rear Admiral Arthur D. Struble, USN, (with binoculars) Chief of Staff for RAdm. Kirk and Major General Hugh Keen, U.S. Army.”

jpeg image, U.S. Navy Photograph
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g250000/g252940.jpg">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g250000/g252940.jpg

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


General J. Lawton Collins

General J(oseph) Lawton Collins (“Lightning Joe”)
General Collins was appointed Commander of VII Corps in December 1943 and commanded VII Corps on 6 June 1944 in the Utah Beach landings. General Collins later served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff during the Korean War.
Photo and Biography
New Jersey Department of Military and Veterans Affairs
href="http://www.state.nj.us/military/korea/biographies/collins.html">http://www.state.nj.us/military/korea/biographies/collins.html

Conversations with General J. Lawton Collins
“On 17 May 1983, student and faculty seminars were held with General J. Lawton Collins at the Command and General Staff College (CGSC), Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. For the students and faculty of CGSC, this visit presented a unique opportunity to discuss issues with a wartime corps commander. General Omar Bradley once termed Collins the ablest of all American corps commanders during World War II.”

Transcribed by Major Gary Wade
Combat Studies Institute Report No. 5
href="http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/wade3/wade3.asp">http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/wade3/wade3.asp

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


General Bernard Montgomery


Field Marshall Montgomery commanded the Allied ground forces on D-Day

The Montgomery Caravans
General Montgomery used three caravans as his mobile Tactical Headquarters in North West Europe from D-Day until May 1945, when he accepted the surrender of German Forces at Luneburg Heath. Monty’s three caravans (a bedroom caravan, an office caravan and a map caravan) are on permanent display in the Land Warfare Hall, The Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England.
The Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England
href="http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.1185">http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.1185

The Montgomery Collections
The Imperial War Museum, London, England
Page 1:
href="http://www.iwm.org.uk/lambeth/montyapp.htm">http://www.iwm.org.uk/lambeth/montyapp.htm
Page 2:
href="http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/docs/monty.htm">http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/docs/monty.htm
N.B….These sites are no longer active, but have been kept in the bibliography for purposes of historical continuity.

NARA Photographs
The National Archives has several online photographs of General Montgomery, including images of Montgomery in 1942 in a tank in North Africa and several images of the General meeting with President Truman in the White House Rose Garden in 1946.

Choose the “Digital Copies” option on the NARA archival research webpage and use the phrase: Bernard Montgomery

href="http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/BasicSearchForm">http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/BasicSearchForm

Portraits – Bernard Montgomery
The British Movie Tone newsreel company has put short montages of a number of well-known personalities online. The video clips are from the company’s newsreel archives and run about a minute. While there is music in the background, there is no voice-over explaining the individual clips.
Choose the “Personalities” link and then choose “Bernard Montgomery.”
http://www.movietone-portraits.com/Main.cfm

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay


See also: Naval Operations

“Our task in conjunction with the Merchant Navies of the United Nations and supported by the Allied Air Forces, is to carry the Allied Expeditionary Force to the Continent, to establish it there in a secure bridgehead and to build it up and maintain it at a rate which will outmatch that of the enemy.
Let no one underestimate the magnitude of this task.
Special Order of the Day, 31 May 1944

by Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay KCB, KBE, MVO
Allied Naval Commander-in-Chief”
(above from “The Royal Navy and Operation Neptune”)
http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/history/battles/the-royal-navy-and-operation-neptune/

Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, 1883-1945
“As Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force from October 1943, Ramsay was responsible for Operation ‘Neptune’, the naval contribution to invasion of Normandy, and the greatest amphibious operation in history. It was also primarily a Royal Navy effort; only 346 of the 2,468 major vessels involved on D-Day, 6 June 1944 were American.”

The Royal Navy
http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/conWebDoc.890/changeNav/3533

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.

Sagamore Hill: National Historic Site – Home of Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
The National Park Service
http://www.nps.gov/archive/sahi/oom.htm

Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
The son of one President (Theodore Roosevelt) and the cousin of another (Franklin Delano Roosevelt), General Roosevelt served in both World Wars and earned every decoration available to a member of the infantry, including the Medal of Honor. At the time of the Invasion, General Roosevelt was Assistant Division Commander of the 4th Division and led his troops ashore on D-Day. He was the first General Officer to come ashore during the Invasion and earned the Medal of Honor for his courage and bravery on Utah Beach. General Roosevelt died in Normandy from a heart attack on 12 July 1944.
Photograph showing General Roosevelt sitting in his jeep which he had named “Rough Rider” after his father’s well known unit in the Spanish American War.
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×329.jpg

Go to: Allied Commanders
Go to: Table of Contents


Art & D-Day

Indian Code Talkers
Painting by Wayne Cooper
“Charles Chibitty is pictured doing his job as a code talker on Omaha Beach. He represents all of the Oklahoma Code Talkers of World War II.”
The Oklahoma Senate
http://www.oksenate.gov/senate_artwork/indian_code_talkers.html

Orville Fisher – Canadian War Artist
“Orville Fisher’s paintings of the Second World War constitute one of the most complete records of Canada’s day-to-day role in that conflict. Perhaps his chief claim to fame is that he was the only Allied war artist to land in Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944″
Canadian War Museum
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/artists/fisher1eng.shtml

Navy Artists & D-Day
The Invasion of Normandy

“While the invasion forces gathered throughout Great Britain, the United States Navy assigned combat artists to record the great adventure. For the young artists, the challenge was unique. During their training period, they lived with the crews of the vessels destined to take part in the invasion; they rode the ships across the channel and accompanied the troops as they landed. Their paintings, including descriptions of their work, were subject to strict censorship. Not until well after the events occurred did the Navy Art Collection receive these historic records.”
Naval Art Collection
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/d-day/exdday/exdday.htm

Go to: Art & D-Day
Go to: Table of Contents


The Beaches

Overview

Omaha Beach

Gold Beach

Sword Beach

Juno Beach

Utah Beach


Overview

D-Day Bagpipes
Bill Millin, “who piped British troops onto the Normandy Beaches on D-Day has donated the bagpipes to the Scottish War Museum.”

The British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/news/012001/17/dday_piper.shtml

The Landing Beaches
Map showing the 5 landing beaches (Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword), as well as details of the activity on each beach on 6 June 1944

150th Combat Engineer Battalion of WW II
http://www.150th.com/letters/omahabch.htm

Normandy Beachhead June 1944
The Warfighters Encyclopedia
U.S. Navy
https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/History/Battles/NormWWII/bechhead.htm
N.B…. This site is no longer active, but has been kept in the bibliography for purposes of historical continuity.

Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Gold Beach

British Assault Area – Naval Operation Orders
The division of the British Assault Area (Gold, Juno and Sword Beaches) including specific latitudes and longitudes and a map.

Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/British_Assault_Area.pdf (PDF)

Gold Beach – 60 Years On
“Gold Beach 60 Years On is a WW II re-enactment event that took place in June 2004 at Ver sur Mer in Normandy, France.
The objectives of the event were to set up and run a WWII Living History camp in Normandy for the June 2004 commemorations and to initiate and maintain a long-term working relationship between British WWII re-enactment groups and the communities close to Gold Beach.”
Because of the success of the re-enactment, a permanent “Gold Beach 60 Years On” re-enactment group has been established.
http://www.goldbeach.org.uk/

Memories of Gold Beach
“50th (Northumbrian) Division and supporting units landed on Gold Beach. After heavy fighting they advanced inland. Their aim was to seize the town of Bayeux and Caen-Bayeux road (permitting east-west communications).”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_gold.htm

Go to: Gold Beach
Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Juno Beach

British Assault Area – Naval Operation Orders
The division of the British Assault Area (Gold, Juno and Sword Beaches) including specific latitudes and longitudes and a map.

Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/British_Assault_Area.pdf (PDF)

Canadian Soldiers Walk onto Juno Beach
6 June 1944
Canadian Department of Defense photo
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.cbc.ca/news/photogalleries/dday/images/04_dday.jpg

D-Day
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday (English)
http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday (French)

Juno Beach Centre
“The Juno Beach Centre is a museum and cultural centre, which opened at Courseulles-sur-Mer [France] on June 6, 2003. The Centre presents the war effort made by all Canadians.”
http://www.junobeach.org/Centre/index.html (English)
http://www.junobeach.org/Centre/index_fr.html (French)

Memories of Juno Beach
“Juno was the Canadian beach. Here, the 3rd Canadian Division faced tough opposition before it was able to drive inland and link with British troops on Gold Beach, to the west.”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_juno.htm

My D-Day: With the Royal Engineers on Juno
Reg A. Clarke
WW2 : People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/98/a1144298.shtml

One Regiment’s Story: The Regina Rifles at Juno
Video Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Television Archives
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7873/conflict_war/d-day/clip9

Royal Canadian Navy Large Infantry Landing Craft with Reinforcements at Juno Beach
Photo taken shortly after the landings on 6 June 1944
Royal Canadian Archives
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.cbc.ca/news/photogalleries/dday/images/06_dday.jpg

The Royal Corps of Signals on Juno Beach
Ronald James Carpenter
WW2 : People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/43/a2631043.shtml

A Tale of Six Scaffolding Poles: Juno Beach on D-Day
Tony Lowndes
WW2 : People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/01/a2541601.shtml

Go to: Juno Beach
Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Omaha Beach

D-Day Landings on Omaha Beach
Photographs
Naval Historical Center
Part I:
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o.htm
Part II:
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o2.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o2.htm
Offshore Activities:
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o5.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o5.htm

First U.S. Infantry Assault Map
Dated April 1944, this map shows the obstacles and defenses on Omaha Beach
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Document12.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Document12.jpg

French Civilians place Crosses at the Graves of American Soldiers in a Cemetery on Omaha Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/75×64.jpg

Indian Head Division (2nd Infantry Division) on Omaha Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presaidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/70×215.jpg

The Invasion of Omaha Beach, The LCI-91 & Crew
Frank Vyn
The U.S. Coast Guard
http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/Vyn_Article.asp

Medic on Omaha Beach
“A medic of the 3d Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment., 1st U.S. Infantry Division, moves along a narrow strip of Omaha Beach administering first aid to men wounded in the landing. The men, having gained the comparative safety offered by the chalk cliff at their backs, take a breather before moving into the interior of the continent. Collville, Sur-Mer, Normandy, France. Photographer: Taylor, 6 June 1944.”
Photograph
U.S. Army Center for Military History

http://www.history.army.mil/images/Reference/normandy/pics/SC189925-S.jpg

Memories of Omaha Beach
“This beach is now known as ‘Bloody Omaha’ because of the 2,200 casualties suffered by the American troops who landed here on D-Day. High cliffs and strong German defences made this a formidable objective. Despite heavy losses, by the end of 6 June the US 1st and 29th Divisions, and the 2nd and 5th Ranger Battalions, had gained a foothold at Omaha.”

D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_omaha.htm

Normandy Invasion – Omaha Beach
U.S. Office of War Information Newsreel Report
Audio and Video Clips
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40670

Omaha Beach: A Tragedy of Errors
David O. Stanley
August 2002

Master’s Thesis, New Jersey Institute of Technology
http://library1.njit.edu/etd/2000s/2002/njit-etd2002-069/njit-etd2002-069.html

Omaha Beach Landings
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/68x197x7.pdf">http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/68x197x7.pdf

Omaha Beachhead (6 June – 13 June 1944)
American Forces in Action Series

Historical Division, War Department

Facsimile Reprint, CMH Pub 100-11
Center of Military History, United States Army
http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/100-11/100-11.htm

Order of Battle OB [Omaha Beach] West
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map2.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map2.jpg

“A Platoon of Black Troops surround a Farm House as they prepare to eliminate a German Sniper holding up an advance, on Omaha Beachhead, near Vierville Sur-Mer-France, June 10, 1944″

Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/7557.pdf

Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN
“Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN, Commander Task Force 124, the ‘Omaha’ Beach Assault Force

On board USS Ancon (AGC-4) during the Normandy invasion, June 1944.”
(The Ancon was the command ship for the “Omaha’ Beach Assault Force.)
Official U.S. Navy Photograph
The National Archives
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g50000/g59419.jpg

Retired Yeoman Chief Petty Officer Ray Perez
“He was a yeoman on “Easy Red” sector of Omaha Beach with the 6th Beach Battalion … Beach battalions were a new kind of unit in World War II, often described as traffic cops for the invasion.”
Ensign Susan D. Henson
Navy News Service
http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/heroes/perez.html

Soldier gazes out to Sea on Omaha Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71×117.jpg

Trench Warfare: German Defenses on Omaha Beach
Map
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40544

U.S.S. Ancon

The U.S.S. Ancon was command ship for the “Omaha” Beach assault.
Official U.S. Navy Photographs
Catholic Mass on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231759.jpg
Protestant Church Service on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231758.jpg
Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN, Commander Task Force 124, the ‘Omaha’ Beach Assault Force on board USS Ancon (AGC-4) during the Normandy invasion, June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g50000/g59419.jpg

Senior U.S. Army officers on board USS Ancon (AGC-4), 5 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h99000/h99216.jpg

Go to: Omaha Beach
Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Sword Beach

British Assault Area – Naval Operation Orders
The division of the British Assault Area (Gold, Juno and Sword Beaches) including specific latitudes and longitudes and a map.

Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/British_Assault_Area.pdf (PDF)

Landing On Sword: Onboard LSI HMS Princess Astrid
George Henry Kirkby (AB Coxwain Combined Ops) 500th Flotilla
WW2 : The People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/65/a2649765.shtml

Memories of Sword Beach
“3rd British Division landed here, on the eastern-most beach. The division fought inland, but was not able to capture one of its objectives – the city of Caen. Commandos marching inland linked up with troops of 6th Airborne Division who had captured the famous Pegasus Bridge.”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_sword.htm

Silent Film Footage – Sword Beach Landing – D-Day
(You will neeed RealPlayer on your computer to see this 43 second film clip)
U.S. National Archives
Encyclopedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40668

Sword Beach: D-Day
Invasionen i Normandiet
(This site is in Danish)
http://www.mhweb.dk/d-dag/b_sword.htm

Sword Beach on D-Day
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/countdown_sword.htm

Go to: Sword Beach
Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Utah Beach

See also: Code Talkers
See also: Exercise Tiger
See also: General J. Lawton Collins

American Assault Troops Move unto Utah Beach
“Invasion. Carrying a full equipment, American assault troops move onto Utah Beach on the norther coast of France. Landing craft, in the background, jams the harbor. 6 June 1944. Photographer: Wall. SC189902″

Photograph
U.S. Army Center of Military History
http://www.history.army.mil/images/Reference/normandy/pics/SC189902.JPG

American 8th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division moving off Utah Beach 9 June 1944
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/71248.pdf (PDF)

Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
The son of one President (Theodore Roosevelt) and the cousin of another (Franklin Delano Roosevelt), General Roosevelt served in both World Wars and earned every decoration available to a member of the infantry, including the Medal of Honor. At the time of the Invasion, General Roosevelt was Assistant Division Commander of the 4th Division and led his troops ashore on D-Day. He was the first General Officer to come ashore during the Invasion and earned the Medal of Honor for his courage and bravery on Utah Beach. General Roosevelt died in Normandy from a heart attack on 12 July 1944.
Photograph showing General Roosevelt sitting in his jeep which he had named “Rough Rider” after his father’s well known unit in the Spanish American War.
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×329.jpg

D-Day Landings on Utah Beach
“Online Library of Selected Images
Naval Historical Center
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4u.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4u.htm

4th Infantry Division : D-Day Actions
“The mission of the 4th Infantry Division in the invasion of the continent was to land at Beaches Tare (Green) and Uncle (Red) on Utah Beach at 060630 June 1944 and move inland to link up with units of the 82nd Airborne and 101st Airborne Divisions … then, in conjunction with the follow-on divisions … to seize the port of Cherbourg.”

Pages 11-12, 4th Infantry Division – Brief History
4th Infantry Division Museum
U.S. Army
http://www.hood.army.mil/4id/about/museum/documents/history.pdf (PDF)

“German POWs rest in a barb-wired enclosure after being interrogated by American soldiers; on Utah Beach, June 6, 1944″
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/75523.pdf (PDF)

German Soldiers surrendering to American troops on Utah Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71×114.jpg

Gliders bring in Supplies to U.S. Army Troops fighting on Utah Beach, Les Dunes De Madeleine, France, June 6, 1944

Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/70232.pdf (PDF)

Medics on Utah Beach 6 June 1944
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/70714.pdf (PDF)

Memories of Utah Beach
“Utah was the western-most beach and the US 4th Infantry Division and supporting units landed here on D-Day. After establishing a beachhead, these troops aimed to capture the Cotentin Peninsula and the port of Cherbourg. The US 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions were landed inland to open the way for the US advance.”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England

http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_utah.htm

Utah Beach American Memorial
“The World War II Utah Beach American Memorial is located … approximately a mile and a half northeast of Sainte-Marie-du-Mont (Manche), France.”
American Battle Monuments Commission
http://www.abmc.gov/memorials/memorials/ut.php

Utah Beach Relief Map given to the Library of Congress
Intelligence officers used rubber relief maps of the Normandy Beaches to brief troops before the Normandy invasion in 1944.
The Library of Congress
href="http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0304/rubber-map.html">http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0304/rubber-map.html

Go to: Utah Beach
Go to: The Beaches
Go to: Table of Contents


Canada

Account written by Sergeant Gariepy, 6 Canadian Armoured Regiment, on capturing Germans North of Falaise
Canadian Department of National Defence
Directorate of History and Heritage, 141.4A6013 (D3)
Juno Beach Centre
http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-e.htm (English)
http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-f.htm
(French)

The Battle for Carpiquet
“It’s two minutes to five in Normandy. Sitting with a company of Western Canadian machine gunners in a stone barn, the CBC’s Matthew Halton begins his countdown. At five o’clock, the Canadians will attack the German-occupied, industrial suburb of Carpiquet – a key piece of territory needed to win the Normandy invasion. It will be, Halton describes, the most enormous concentration of fire ever put down on a small object.”

Audio Clip and brief descriptive text
Canadian Broadcasting System (CBC)
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-221-1119-10/conflict_war/carpiquet/

The Campaign in North-West Europe : The Plan and the Invasion of Normandy, June 1944
Chapter IX
The Canadian Army 1939-1945
Official History of the Canadian Army
Department of National Defense
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/Canada/CA/OpSumm/OpSumm-11.html

Canada and Normandy
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/cannorm">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/cannorm
(English)
http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/cannorm(French)

Canadian Newspapers – D-Day & the Normandy Campaign
Canadian War Museum
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/newspapers/operations/ddaynormandy_e.shtml

Canadian Soldiers Walk onto Juno Beach
6 June 1944
Canadian Department of Defense photo
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.cbc.ca/news/photogalleries/dday/images/04_dday.jpg

Canadian Virtual War Memorial
Veterans Affairs Canada
http://www.virtualmemorial.gc.ca/

Carpiquet and Caen
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet (French)

D-Day
“On 6 June 1944, the allied invasion of Normandy, code-named Operation Overlord, began. All three Canadian services played critical roles in this initial breaching of the Atlantic Wall, which gave the allies a foothold in “Fortress Europe” and would lead to Hitler’s defeat. To enable the landing of Canadian forces at Juno beach, the Royal Canadian Navy and the RCAF bombarded the German coastal batteries. The 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion parachuted in just after midnight to secure bridges over the rivers Orne amd
Dives. After storming Juno, the Canadians’ first objectives were to capture the city of Caen and to secure the road to Bayeux. But they met with ferocious resistance from German Panzer divisions and as night fell on D-day, it became apparent that the Battle for
Normandy was only beginning.”
Canada’s Digital Collections
href="http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Pages/DDaytext.html">http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Pages/DDaytext.html

D-Day
Veteran Affairs Canada
http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/dday (French)

D-Day Airborne Drop Zones and Objectives
Map
Canada’s Digital Collections
href="http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg">http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg

Extending the Bridgehead, June 7th – July 4th, 1944
Canada in World War II
Juno Beach Centre
http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-e.htm
(English)
http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-f.htm
(French)

Invasion Plans and Preparations
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion (French)

Juno Beach Centre
“The Juno Beach Centre is a museum and cultural centre, which opened at Courseulles-sur-Mer [France] on June 6, 2003. The Centre presents the war effort made by all Canadians.”
http://www.junobeach.org/Centre/index.html (English)
http://www.junobeach.org/Centre/index_fr.html (French)

Memories of Juno Beach
“Juno was the Canadian beach. Here, the 3rd Canadian Division faced tough opposition before it was able to drive inland and link with British troops on Gold Beach, to the west.”
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_juno.htm

Normandy 1944: Canada Remembers
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy (English)
http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy (French)

One Regiment’s Story: The Regina Rifles at Juno
Video Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Television Archives
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7873/conflict_war/d-day/clip9

The Opponent
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent (French)

Orville Fisher – Canadian War Artist
“Orville Fisher’s paintings of the Second World War constitute one of the most complete records of Canada’s day-to-day role in that conflict. Perhaps his chief claim to fame is that he was the only Allied war artist to land in Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944″

Canadian War Museum
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/artists/fisher1eng.shtml

Paratroopers Drop In: 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion on D-Day
Video Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Television Archives
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7867/conflict_war/d-day/clip3

Royal Canadian Navy Large Infantry Landing Craft with Reinforcements at Juno Beach
Shortly after the landings on 6 June 1944
Royal Canadian Archives
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.cbc.ca/news/photogalleries/dday/images/06_dday.jpg

“We Have Every Reason for Confidence”
D-Day Radio Broadcast to the Nation by Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King
Audio Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7871/conflict_war/d-day/clip7

Witness to D-Day
“‘Today is June 6, 1944 and the campaign to liberate France and Belgium from Germany has begun.’ Swimming with his pack and waterproof typewriter, CBC Radio’s Matthew Halton navigates the rough, rising tides to the beach. Around him, the Allied troops swim forward and land on the shell-swept Normandy beaches. They move forward through curtains of machine gun fire.”

Audio Clip and brief descriptive text
Canadian Broadcasting System (CBC)
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDCC-1-71-1317-3448/conflict_war/d-day/

Go to: Canada
Go to: Table of Contents


The Coast Guard


See also: Naval Operations

Coast Guard Barge off Normandy, 6 June 1944
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Museum
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/71244.pdf

D-Day: The 60th Anniversary

U.S. Coast Guard Reservist, May 2004, Vol. LI, No. 4

The Coast Guard

href="http://www.uscg.mil/hq/reserve/magazine/mag2004/MAY%2004/DDay60th.htm

The Invasion of Omaha Beach, The LCI-91 & Crew
Frank Vyn
The U.S. Coast Guard
href="http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/Vyn_Article.asp">http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/Vyn_Article.asp

The U.S. Coast Guard at Normandy
Scott T. Price
Text and photos
U.S. Coast Guard
href="http://www.uscg.mil/history/Normandy_Index.asp">http://www.uscg.mil/history/Normandy_Index.asp

Go to: The Coast Guard
Go to: Table of Contents


Code Talkers


Many people know of the Navajo Code Talkers who used the Navajo language to send unbreakable messages for the U.S. Forces in the Pacific during World War II, but there were also 14 Comanche Code Talkers at Utah Beach during the Normandy Invasion.

.

Indian Code Talkers
Painting by Wayne Cooper
“Charles Chibitty is pictured doing his job as a code talker. He represents all of the Oklahoma Code Talkers of World War II.”
The Oklahoma Senate
href="http://www.oksenate.gov/senate_artwork/indian_code_talkers.html">http://www.oksenate.gov/senate_artwork/indian_code_talkers.html

Comanche Code Talker Charles Chibitty

“Chibitty recounted his wartime experiences when his unit landed on the Normandy shores on ‘the first or second day after D-Day.’ After his unit hit Utah Beach, his first radio message was sent to another codetalker on an incoming boat. Translated into English, it said: ‘Five miles to the right of the designated area and five miles inland, the fighting is fierce and we need help.’”

Armed Forces News Service
Department of Defense
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=42903

Go to: Code Talkers
Go to: Table of Contents


D-Day Plus

The initial landings on 6 June 1944 were only the beginning of the Normandy Campaign, which in itself, was only the beginning of the Allied liberation of Europe.

Carpiquet and Caen
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/carpiquet (French)

D-Day Plus 2
Russell Mack Baldwin
“Growing up in an idyllic suburb of Cleveland, Russell Baldwin had just opened practice as a licensed optometrist in October 1941 when he was drafted. The army wasn’t much interested in his specialty, and he became a member of a bridge building battalion. His
unit landed in the second wave after D-Day, when danger was still prevalent. Baldwin survived several close shaves only to be captured by the retreating Germans, who abandoned him after a month.”
Link to photographs and an audio interview

The Veteran’s History Project

Library of Congress
href="http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cocoon/vhp-stories/loc.natlib.afc2001001.03541/">http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cocoon/vhp-stories/loc.natlib.afc2001001.03541/

D-Day Plus 4
“A Platoon of Black Troops surround a Farm House as they prepare to eliminate a German Sniper holding up an advance, on Omaha Beachhead, near Vierville Sur-Mer-France, June 10, 1944″

Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/7557.pdf (PDF)

D-Day Plus 11
Glenn B. Webber
“The duties of a humble radio operator took on great significance when Glenn Webber became one of the first Americans to train in intercepting German transmissions. Working with British intelligence, Webber was able to recognize and pick up coded
Luftwaffe messages regarding planned air strikes on Britain, blunting the advantage that the Germans had enjoyed in the air from the beginning of the war. He landed on Omaha Beach on D-Day Plus 11 and continued to monitor enemy transmissions, spending nine months in Paris after it was liberated.”
Link to photographs and an audio interview

The Veteran’s History Project
Library of Congress
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cocoon/vhp-stories/loc.natlib.afc2001001.02442/

Extending the Bridgehead, June 7th – July 4th, 1944
Canada in World War II
Juno Beach Centre
href="http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-e.htm">http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-e.htm

(English)
href="http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-f.htm">http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-cam-f.htm
(French)

The Germans Counterattack
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter (French)

Go to: D-Day Plus
Go to: Table of Contents


General Eisenhower


See also: Allied Commanders

8 June 1944
Report by General Eisenhower of his 7 June “complete tour by destroyer of the landing areas.”
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/1944_06_08_SHAEF_Message.pdf (PDF)

7 June 1944
General Eisenhower watching Allied Landing Operations from the Deck of the HMS Apollo (a mine layer) off the coast of France
Signal Corps Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×3271.jpg

Undated, but after 6 June 1944
“General Omar Bradley [and] General Dwight D. Eisenhower shaking hands with Sergeant Richard Gallager, New York, NY after presenting him with the Distinguished Service Medal. On Gallager’s right is Corporal Stanley Appleby, Clarksville, NY, members of the US 1st Division.”
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/66×738.jpg

6 June 1944
General Eisenhower’s Order of the Day for the Normandy Invasion
Image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Order_of_the_Day.pdf">http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Order_of_the_Day.pdf

6 June 1944
General Eisenhower’s Order of the Day for the Normandy Invasion
Transcript and image
ourdocuments.gov
The National Archives
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=75

6 June 1944
Message from General Eisenhower to General Marshall (U.S. Army Chief of Staff) re the initial stages of the Normandy Invasion
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/1944_06_06_DDE_to_Marshall.pdf (PDF)

5 June 1944
General Eisenhower with Paratroopers before they leave for D-Day
The men are members of Company E, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, at the 101st Airborne Division’s camp at Greenham Common, England
Photograph
The National Archives
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/d-day-memo/images/d-day-order-thumbnail.gif

5 June 1944
Note in Case of Failure
General Eisenhower prepared for both the success or failure of the Normandy Invasion. In this draft note, written in case the invasion failed, Eisenhower assumes responsibility for the invasion. This draft was written on 5 June 1944, but was mistakenly dated
5 July.

jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/In_Case_of_Failure_Message.pdf (PDF)

6-7 December 1943
“Handwritten note from President Roosevelt to Marshal Stalin appointing Dwight Eisenhower to command Operation Overlord. General George Marshall added a note to Eisenhower on December 7, 1943.”
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/1943_12_07_Roosevelt_to_Stalin.pdf (PDF)

5 October 1943
Harry Butcher’s Diary Entry
Harry Butcher was General Eisenhower’s Aide and part of this diary entry discusses the possibility of General Marshall being named Supreme Allied Commander. The entry says that the American Naval Secretary Frank Knox had told General Eisenhower that Harry Hopkins (long time friend of Roosevelt, member of the War Production Board and Roosevelt’s Special Assistant 1942-1945) wanted General Marshall to be Supreme Commander for the Invasion even though it had been tentatively agreed between the Americans and the British that the Supreme Commander would be British, (Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff). The British had reluctantly accepted General Marshall, but to make the situation more agreeable, Hopkins had offered the Allied Command of the Mediterranean to the British. General Eisenhower had hoped to stay in the Mediterranean, but if the post went to the British, Eisenhower would have to be reassigned, possibly as U.S. Army Chief of Staff. Butcher said in the Diary, “The job of Chief of Staff does not appeal to Ike.”
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Butcher_Diary.pdf (PDF)

Portraits – Dwight D. Eisenhower
The British Movie Tone newsreel company has put short montages of a number of well-known personalities online. The video clips are from the company’s newsreel archives and run about a minute. While there is music in the background, there is no voice-over explaining the individual clips.
Choose the “Personalities” link and then choose “Dwight D. Eisenhower.”
http://www.movietone-portraits.com/Main.cfm

Go to: General Eisenhower
Go to: Table of Contents


German Commanders, Troops & Defenses

Captured German Submarine arriving at Southampton [England] Docks to be put on Public View

Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×8012.jpg

D-Day Memories: Rommel’s Defeat

BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3714401.stm

German Chain of Command in Western Europe on 6 June 1944
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40541

German General being brought ashore at Southampton [England]
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×8013.jpg

German General Rommel inspects portions of the Beach Defenses
Undated Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71×152.jpg

German Gunners at the Bay of the Seine
“German gunners defending the coast against Allied invaders in the Bay of the Seine on D-Day, June 6, 1944; from a wartime German documentary, narrated in Portuguese and translated by the U.S. Office of Strategic Services.”
U.S. National Archives
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40653

German Panzer Regiment 22
Tanks at D-Day
The Tank Museum, Bovington, England
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/panzer.html

“German POWs rest in a barb-wired enclosure after being interrogated by American soldiers; on Utah Beach, June 6, 1944″
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/Photos/75523.pdf (PDF)

German Prisoners Arriving at Southampton [England] Docks
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×8014.jpg

German Soldiers surrendering to American troops on Utah Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71×114.jpg

Hitler’s D-Day Mistakes
“Converted for the Web with permission from Simon & Shuster from “D-Day: June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II” by Stephen E. Ambrose”
website maintained by World War II History

http://www.worldwar2history.info/D-Day/Hitler.html

The Opponent
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/opponent (French)

The Real Rommel
Field Marshall and Commander of Heeresgruppe (Army Group) B
In charge of the defense of the French Coastline in June 1944
Channl 4 (United Kingdom)
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/R/real_lives/rommel.html

Rommel and the Atlantic Wall
“After an inspection of the coast-line in Dec 43, Rommel determined that the three most probable invasion sites were the Schelde, the Somme and the western part of the Bay of the Seine … Rommel’s plan for the defense was to declare the beach the MLR [Main Line of Resistance] and to place all the infantry and artillery in a strong belt along the coast. In addition, all positions were to be extensively mined, and all approaches were to be blocked by obstacles of many different types.”
U.S. Navy Department Library
http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/rommel_atl_wall.htm

Taking of German Prisoners of War – 6 June 1944
U.S. Office of War Information newsreel reports on the taking of German prisoners of war, D-Day
Video
U.S. National Archives
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40407

Trench Warfare: German Defenses on Omaha Beach
Map
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40544

Go to: German Commanders, Troops & Defenses
Go to: Table of Contents


German View of D-Day

Account written by Sergeant Gariepy, 6 Canadian Armoured Regiment, on capturing Germans North of Falaise
Canadian Department of National Defence
Directorate of History and Heritage, 141.4A6013 (D3)
Juno Beach Centre
http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-e.htm
(English)
http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-f.htm (French)

Field Marshal Karl R. Gerd von Rundstedt’s Report on the Allied Invasion of Normandy

In 1944 Field Marshal von Rundstedt was German Commander-in-Chief, West
This article was first called “Rundstedt’s Reaction to the Invasion” and published by the Office of Naval Intelligence in
The O.N.I. Weekly, 3, no. 46, pages 3692-3699

Naval Historical Center
Department of the Navy
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-5.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-5.htm

German Army Headquarters in Normandy attacked by fighter-bombers of the Second Tactical Air Force
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg

The Germans Counterattack
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/counter (French)

Go to: German View of D-Day
Go to: Table of Contents


The Higgins Boats


On D-Day there were over 1,500 landing craft that moved soldiers from the troop transports to the beaches. These boats were known as Higgins Boats because they had been designed and built by Andrew Jackson Higgins and his Higgins Industries of New Orleans, Louisiana. Mr. Higgins also built the PT (Patrol-Torpedo) Boats that were so successful in the War in the Pacific, as well as parts of the atomic bomb. Adolf Hilter referred to Mr. Higgins as “the new Noah.”

Higgins Boats

jpeg image
The National D-Day Museum

http://www.nationalww2museum.org/assets/images/higginsboatsm.jpg

Photographs – Higgins Boats
New Orleans Public Library
A Higgins built Patrol Torpedo (PT) Boat
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june008.htm

Higgins Supplied the Allies Too!
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june009.htm
Patent #2,341,866, awarded to Higgins on February 15, 1944
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june005.htm
On Lake Pontchartrain
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june0018.htm
Andrew Jackson Higgins
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june0013.htm
A Higgins Landing Boat hits the Beach
http://www.nutrias.org/~nopl/monthly/june2000/june003.htm

Go to: Higgins Boats
Go to: Table of Contents


History & Overview

The Battle of Normandy
The March to Victory : A Guide to World War II Battles and Battlefields from London to the Rhine
John T. Bookman and Stephen T. Powers
The University of Colorado Press
http://www.history.rochester.edu/mtv/overview.htm

Command Dysfunction : Minding the Cognitive War
B.D. Arden
Chapter 4 (pages 44-59) of this 1996 thesis discusses the Normandy Invasion
School of Advanced Airpower Studies
href="http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/saas/dahl_ab.pdf">http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/saas/dahl_ab.pdf
(PDF)

D-Day : The Normandy Invasion
Naval Historical Center
Department of the Navy
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-1.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-1.htm

Normandy
“A great invasion force stood off the Normandy coast of France as dawn broke on 6 June 1944: 9 battleships, 23 cruisers, 104 destroyers, and 71 large landing craft of various descriptions as well as troop transports, mine sweepers, and merchantmen — in all,
nearly 5,000 ships of every type, the largest armada ever assembled.”
Center of Military History, U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/normandy/nor-pam.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/normandy/nor-pam.htm

Normandy
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c10.html">http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c10.html

Normandy 1944: Canada Remembers
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/Normandy (French)

Utah Beach to Cherborg (6 June – 27 June 1944)
“First printed by the Historical Division, War Department, for the American Forces in Action series, 1948″
CMH Pub 100-12
Center of Military History, United States Army
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS32919

Go to: History & Overview
Go to: Table of Contents


King George VI

King George VI Addresses His Subjects on D-Day
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDCC-1-71-1317-7880/conflict_war/d-day/

Go to: King George VI
Go to: Table of Contents


Lesson Plans

Teaching With Documents

D-Day Message from General Eisenhower to General Marshall
The National Archives
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/d-day-memo/

Teaching With Documents
Message Drafted by General Eisenhower in Case the D-Day Invasion Failed
The National Archives
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/d-day-message/

Go to: Lesson Plans
Go to: Table of Contents


Maps

Air Operations – The Invasion of Normandy
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF284a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF284a.jpg

Allied Assault Routes
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map5.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map5.jpg

Animated Map of the D-Day Landings
The British Broadcasting System
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_d_day.shtml

Bibliography of Print Map Sources – Normandy Invasion
Melinda Mosley
Air University Library
N.B…. Scroll down to the Normandy Invasion link
href="http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/maps/ww2maps.htm">http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/maps/ww2maps.htm

D-Day Airborne Drop Zones and Objectives
Map
Canada’s Digital Collections
href="http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg">http://collections.ic.gc.ca/TOHarchive/Assets/MAPS/DDayMap.jpg

Final Overlord Plan
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library

href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map4.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map4.jpg

First U.S. Infantry Assault Map
Dated April 1944, this map shows the obstacles and defenses on Omaha Beach
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Document12.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Document12.jpg

Order of Battle OB [Omaha Beach] West
jpeg image

Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map2.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map2.jpg

Overlord Area
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map3.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/map3.jpg

Pre Invasion Air Attacks
Map

New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 8
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg

Situation in Europe – 6 June 1944
jpeg image
Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map1.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Map1.jpg

Trench Warfare: German Defenses on Omaha Beach
Map
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40544

Go to: Maps
Go to: Table of Contents


Meaning of the Term “D-Day”

The Term “D-Day”
“The terms D-day and H-hour are used for the day and hour on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. They designate the day and hour of the operation when the day and hour have not yet been determined, or where secrecy is essential. The letters
are derived from the words for which they stand, “D” for the day of the invasion and “H” for the hour operations actually begin.”
Center of Military History, U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/faq/ddaydef.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/faq/ddaydef.htm

Go to: Meaning of the Term “D-Day”
Go to: Table of Contents


Medal of Honor

Medal of Honor Recipients
A dozen men of varying ranks received the Medal of Honor for actions during the Normandy campaign including Theodore Roosevelt Jr., the son of President Teddy Roosevelt.
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.history.army.mil/moh.html">http://www.history.army.mil/moh.html

Go to: Medal of Honor
Go to: Table of Contents


Mulberry Harbors

A main logistical problem that had to be overcome during the planning of the Normandy invasion was getting huge numbers of troops off a multitude of ships and onto the beaches as quickly and safely as possible. The 6th of June was only the beginning of the Normandy Campaign and once the original troops were ashore, they had to be supplied and replacement/supplemental troops landed.

The solution was to construct two artificial harbors known as Mulberries, one for the British and Canadian beaches and one for the American beaches. Each Mulberry was built of concrete sections called Phoenixes which were towed across the English Channel and assembled on site. Each assembled Mulberry was about a mile long, which allowed a number of ships to simultaneously unload men and/or supplies.

The Emergence of Infrastructure as a Decisive Strategic Concept
Martin Blumenson
The bulk of this article discusses infrastructure in the Normandy Campaign including the concept and use of the Mulberry Harbors

Parameters, Winter 1999-2000, pp. 39-45
The U.S. Army War College Quarterly
http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/Parameters/99winter/blumenso.htm

The Invasion of Normandy: Mulberry
jpeg images and text
Naval Historical Center
U.S. Department of the Navy
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/d-day/exdday/exdday20.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/d-day/exdday/exdday20.htm

Mulberry Harbour, Arromanches: Normandy Landing, June 1944
Stephen Bone
British National Maritime Museum
http://www.nmmprints.com/lowres/108/kiosk_img/1/330306.jpg

Mulberry Harbor “B” – Arromanches
(The British Artificial Harbor)
Construction Diagram
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40542

Mulberry Harbors
Normandie Memoire – the official French 60th Anniversary site
href="http://www.normandiememoire.com/NM60Anglais/2_histo2/histo2_p4_gb.htm">http://www.normandiememoire.com/NM60Anglais/2_histo2/histo2_p4_gb.htm

Mulberry Harbors
“Trials of several prototypes took place at Garlieston in Wigtonshire in South West Scotland. The results of these trials were the two great Mulberry Harbours, Mulberry A and Mulberry B … Construction of the huge concrete and steel structures was carried out in several places in the UK including Henry Robb’s Shipbuilding Yard at Leith where the design of the units and the co-ordination of the work was under the supervision of Alexander Findlay & Company of Motherwell. Finishing work was done at Newhaven alongside the fish quay. A total of thirteen pierheads
and sixteen large pontoons for the Mulberry Harbours were built at Leith. Other construction took place at Cairnryan on the west coast.”
The Scots at War Trust
href="http://www.scotsatwar.org.uk/AZ/mulberryharbours.htm">http://www.scotsatwar.org.uk/AZ/mulberryharbours.htm

Mulberry Harbors at the British and American Beaches
Audio and Video Clips from: “The True Glory”
(a wartime documentary from the U.S. State Department)
U.S. National Archives
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40657

Neptune: Training, Mounting, the Artificial Ports
Lt. Clifford L. Jones
“This manuscript was prepared at the end of World War II by Lieutenant Clifford L. Jones, one of the Army historians assigned to the Historical Division of the European Theater of Operations (ETO).”

The Administrative and Logistical History of the ETO [European Theatre of Operations], Part VI
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 AA Vol. 6
U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-fm.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-fm.htm

Operation Mulberry – D-Day 1944
U.S. Army Transportaton Museum
http://www.transchool.eustis.army.mil/Museum/Mulberry.htm

Phoenixes, Mulberries, Whales, Lobnitzes, Corncobs and Role of Tugs at Normandy Harbor on D-Day June 6, 1944
U.S. Maritime Service Veterans
href="http://www.usmm.org/normandy.html">http://www.usmm.org/normandy.html

Section of Mulberry Harbor intended for Arromanches (British/Canadian Beaches) in Southampton Harbor
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/657ea91.jpg

Wivenhoe’s “Whales”
Parts of the Mulberries were built all over Britain and the two “whales,” or pier heads, were built in Wivenhoe, England
Wivenhoe Town Council
href="http://www.wivenhoe.gov.uk/History/mulberry_harbour.htm">http://www.wivenhoe.gov.uk/History/mulberry_harbour.htm

Go to: Mulberry Harbors
Go to: Table of Contents


Museums

The D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
“The D-Day Museum was established in 1984 to tell the story of Operation Overlord from its origins in the dark days of 1940 to victory in Normandy in 1944…. The Overlord Embroidery, the centrepiece of the D-Day Museum, was commissioned by Lord Dulverton of Batsford as a tribute to the sacrifice and heroism of those who took part [in the Normandy Invasion].”

http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/

Landing Museum – Arromanches, France
(Musée du Débarquement)

“The museum, designed by the architect Mr François Carpentier was built on the site of the artificial harbour [Mulberry]. Its vestiges can still be seen, a few hundred yards away from the shore.”
http://www.normandie44lamemoire.com/versionanglaise/fichesvillesus/arromstcomus2.html

Memorial Pegasus, Normandy, France
“Several swing bridges were used across the Canal from Caen to the sea from 1856. The lifting bridge of Bénouville was constructed in 1934 and was renamed Pegasus Bridge in 1944 in memory of the soldiers of the [British] 6th Airborne Division who captured it. Their emblem was Pegasus, the winged horse.”
The Pegasus Bridge was the first bridge liberated in France.
http://www.normandy1944.com/pegasus_presentation_03.php

U.S. National D-Day Museum
Congress has designated the New Orleans based National D-Day Museum as “America’s National World War II
Museum.”
http://www.ddaymuseum.org/

Go to: Museums
Go to: Table of Contents


Naval Operations


See also: Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay
See also: Coast Guard
See also: Mulberry Harbors
See also: Underwater Archaeology

Allied Troops boarding LSTs
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/71x720x4.jpg

Amphibious Operations: Invasion of Northern France
Western Task Force – June 1944
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Report_of_theAmphibious_Operations.pdf (PDF)

British Assault Area – Naval Operation Orders
The division of the British Assault Area (Gold, Juno and Sword Beaches) including specific latitudes and longitudes and a map.

Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/British_Assault_Area.pdf (PDF)

Crossing the Channel
“Operation Neptune was the name given to the naval side of D-Day : moving over 130,000 troops across the Channel in 24 hours. This involved 6,939 vessels and 195,700 personnel, including the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, British Merchant Navy, US Navy, US Coast Guard, Royal Canadian Navy and other Allied forces.”
The D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_crossing.htm

D-Day Landings
Fact Sheet
The Royal Naval Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.royalnavalmuseum.org/library/factsheets/d_d_landings.htm
N.B….This site is no longer active, but has been kept in the bibliography for purposes of historical continuity.

General Eisenhower watching Allied Landing Operations from the Deck of the HMS Apollo (a mine layer) off the coast of France
7 June 1944
Signal Corps Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×3271.jpg

Naval Armed Guard Service: Merchant Ships at Normandy
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq104-7.htm

Naval Attack
Audio Clip
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Archives
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-71-1317-7868/conflict_war/d-day/clip4

Naval Combat Demolition Units of the Atlantic Theatre of Operations
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-3.htm

Naval Combat Demolition Units – The Normandy Invasion
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/docs/wwii/norman1.htm

Naval Memories
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_naval.htm

Neptune: Training, Mounting, the Artificial Ports
Lt. Clifford L. Jones
“This manuscript was prepared at the end of World War II by Lieutenant Clifford L. Jones, one of the Army historians assigned to the Historical Division of the European Theater of Operations (ETO).”

The Administrative and Logistical History of the ETO [European Theatre of Operations], Part VI
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 AA Vol. 6
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-fm.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-fm.htm

Oral Histories – The Normandy Invasion
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-2.htm

Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN
“Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN, Commander Task Force 124, the ‘Omaha’ Beach Assault Force
On board USS Ancon (AGC-4) during the Normandy invasion, June 1944.”
(The Ancon was the command ship for the “Omaha’ Beach Assault Force.)
Official U.S. Navy Photograph
The National Archives
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g50000/g59419.jpg

Retired Yeoman Chief Petty Officer Ray Perez
“He was a yeoman on “Easy Red” sector of Omaha Beach with the 6th Beach Battalion … Beach battalions were a new kind of unit in World War II, often described as traffic cops for the invasion.”
Ensign Susan D. Henson
Navy News Service
http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/heroes/perez.html

The Royal Navy and Operation Neptune
The Royal Navy
http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/history/battles/the-royal-navy-and-operation-neptune/

Seabees [Naval Construction Regiment]
The Seabees [Naval Construction Regiment] in World War II
Site includes information about the Seabees in the Normandy Invasion

“During D-Day of the Normandy invasion, 6 June 1944, the Seabees were among the first to go ashore as members of naval combat demolition units. … .After the invasion fleet had arrived off the coast, The approximately 10,000 Seabees of Naval Construction
Regiment 25 began manhandling their pontoon causeways onto the beach. … by July 4, only 28 days after D-day, they had helped land more than a million Allied fighting men.”
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq67-3.htm

Sunk & Damaged Craft – Normandy Invasion 6-25 June 1944
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-4.htm

U.S.S. Ancon

The U.S.S. Ancon was command ship for the “Omaha” Beach assault.
Official U.S. Navy Photographs
Catholic Mass on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231759.jpg
Protestant Church Service on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231758.jpg
Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN, Commander Task Force 124, the ‘Omaha’ Beach Assault Force on board USS Ancon (AGC-4) during the Normandy invasion, June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g50000/g59419.jpg

Senior U.S. Army officers on board USS Ancon (AGC-4), 5 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h99000/h99216.jpg

Go to: Naval Operations
Go to: Table of Contents


New Zealand

Air Operations – The Invasion of Normandy
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c10.html">http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c10.html

D-Day Planes
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF017b.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF017b.jpg

German Army Headquarters in Normandy attacked by fighter-bombers of the Second Tactical Air
Force

Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force

Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg

Normandy
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 10
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/c10.html">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/c10.html

Pre Invasion Air Attacks
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 8
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg

Prelude to Invasion
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 9
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c9.html">http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c9.html

Go to: New Zealand
Go to: Table of Contents


Newspapers & Radio

The Battle for Carpiquet
“It’s two minutes to five in Normandy. Sitting with a company of Western Canadian machine gunners in a stone barn, the CBC’s Matthew Halton begins his countdown. At five o’clock, the Canadians will attack the German-occupied, industrial suburb of Carpiquet – a key piece of territory needed to win the Normandy invasion. It will be, Halton describes, the most enormous concentration of fire ever put down on a small object.”

Audio Clip and brief descriptive text
Canadian Broadcasting System (CBC)
http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/second_world_war/clips/1119/

Canadian Newspapers – D-Day & the Normandy Campaign
Canadian War Museum
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/newspapers/operations/ddaynormandy_e.shtml

The New York Times
“General Dwight D. Eisenhower did not announce the Allied landings on the coast of France until 3:30 a.m on June 6, 1944. As the last edition of the day, this 6:00 a.m. extra edition of The New York Times carried the most complete D-Day coverage of any morning newspaper world-wide, replete with text and detailed maps of Normandy. In addition to Raymond Daniel’s lead story, the front page includes NBC’s Wright Bryan’s coverage from a U.S. Ninth Air Force plane, providing one of the first eyewitness accounts of the airborne invasion.”
jpeg image of the front page of the New York Times
American Treasures of the Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/vc68a.1.jpg

Witness to D-Day
“‘Today is June 6, 1944 and the campaign to liberate France and Belgium from Germany has begun.’ Swimming with his pack and waterproof typewriter, CBC Radio’s Matthew Halton navigates the rough, rising tides to the beach. Around him, the Allied troops swim forward and land on the shell-swept Normandy beaches. They move forward through curtains of machine gun fire.”

Audio Clip and brief descriptive text
Canadian Broadcasting System (CBC)
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDCC-1-71-1317-3448/conflict_war/d-day/

Go to: Newspapers & Radio
Go to: Table of Contents


Operation Bodyguard – Deceiving the Enemy


“Deception on D-Day

Probably the best example of historical countermeasures taken against the enemy is D-Day, during WWII. This was a completely covert operation. The Germans thought that the Allied invasion would take place at the Calais straits of Dover because this
location historically had always provided easy access to the European continent. To keep the Germans thinking this (while, in fact, planning the invasion at Normandy), the Allies conducted an elaborate deception project called Operation Bodyguard.

To perpetrate the deception the Allies did many things. They placed rubber-inflated tanks and ships at strategic (and visible) locations around the departure port. Bill Blass (the future fashion designer) built fake factories and towns near Calais. They “stationed”
21 fake personnel units there with fake identification patches, placed real trucks with “jack-in-the-box” inflatable people in the car, and dropped fake paratroopers over Calais.

The FUSAG (First United States Army Group) was a dummy army built around Gen. George Patton as part of the ruse because the Germans feared him and thought he would lead the attack. Field Marshall Montgomery had a double, Clifton James (recommended by David Niven for the part), who was seen in misleading locations.

On invasion day John Ford and his film crew flew reconnaissance aircraft to take pictures of Calais, adding a final, real-time, bit of deceptive trickery. Operation Bodyguard was a phenomenal success, leading to Allied victory in Europe.”
Above from “Thwarting the Enemy”
href="http://www.intelligence.gov/2-overyears_e.shtml">http://www.intelligence.gov/2-overyears_e.shtml

The Art of Deception: Dueling Intelligence Organizations in World War II
The first chapter of this Master’s Thesis discusses Operation Bodyguard
Whitney Talley Bendeck
Master’s Thesis, Florida State University
http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11122004-104647/

Cover Operation for Operation Overlord

“This document [dated 20 November 1943] outlined in detail the Allied plan [Operation Bodyguard] for deceiving the enemy into believing the main assault would come in the Pas De Calais area and thus was intended to divert enemy forces away from the Normandy beaches.”
jpeg images, Eisenhower Presidential Library
page 1
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc9_20%20Nov43-1.JPG
page 2
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc9_20Nov43-2.JPG">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc9_20Nov43-2.JPG
page 3
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href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc9_20Nov43-9.JPG">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc9_20Nov43-9.JPG

Go to: Operation Bodyguard – Deceiving the Enemy
Go to: Table of Contents

Memorandum Outlining Operation Bodyguard
“Memorandum, Robert E. Baker for Chief of Staff (General Walter Bedell Smith was Chief of General Eisenhower’s staff at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force), February 3, 1944. This memorandum outlined Plan BODYGUARD, the overall
deception plan used against Germany in conjunction with OVERLORD”
jpeg image, Eisenhower Presidential Library
href="http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc8_3Feb44.jpg">http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/spykit/images/Doc8_3Feb44.jpg

Go to: Operation Bodyguard – Deceiving the Enemy
Go to: Table of Contents

Second World War Deception
Donald J. Bacon
Operation Bodyguard is discussed in this paper as well as the Soviet deception operations at Stalingrad, Kursk and White Russia and Operations Barclay [Invasion of Sicily] and Cockcade [false invasion of Western Europe in 1943].

Wright Flyer Paper No. 5
Air Command and Staff College, Air University
href="http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/wright/wf05.pdf">http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/wright/wf05.pdf (PDF)

Go to: Operation Bodyguard – Deceiving the Enemy
Go to: Table of Contents

Strategic Deception Behind the Normandy Invasion
Major Jon S. Wendell, United States Air Force
site maintained by GlobalSecurity.org
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1997/Wendell.htm

Go to: Operation Bodyguard – Deceiving the Enemy
Go to: Table of Contents


Oral/Personal Histories


See also: D-Day Plus

Account written by Sergeant Gariepy, 6 Canadian Armoured Regiment, on capturing Germans North of Falaise
Canadian Department of National Defence
Directorate of History and Heritage, 141.4A6013 (D3)
Juno Beach Centre

href="http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-e.htm">http://www.junobeach.org/e/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-e.htm
(English)
href="http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-f.htm">http://www.junobeach.org/f/2/can-eve-rod-nor-gar-f.htm
(French)

Campbell Gray – 5th Battalion (Scottish) Parachute Regiment
“It was one o’clock in the morning, and I was 500ft over Normandy waiting to jump from a Stirling bomber. I was one of the vast numbers of airborne forces involved in Operation Overlord.”
WII : The People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/90/a1951490.shtml

Crosses at Normandy – June 1944
COL Elbert E. Legg
“This narrative relates some of my personal experiences as a sergeant squad leader in the 603rd Quartermaster Graves Registration Company in the first days of the Allied invasion at Normandy, France, in June 1944.”

Quartermaster Professional Bulletin – Autumn/Winter 1994
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmfound.com/crosses.htm

D-Day Stories
“Experience one of the most momentous operations of World War Two through the words of British and American soldiers who led the assaults, a French Resistance fighter who spied from behind the lines and the German defender who celebrated his 18th birthday on D-Day.”
Audio Files
The British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/dday_audio.shtml

A FootSloggers Story: 1st Buckinhamshire Battalion in Normandy
Norman Searle
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/96/a2319996.shtml

Landing On Sword : Onboard LSI HMS Princess Astrid
George Henry Kirkby (AB Coxwain Combined Ops) 500th Flotilla
WWII : The People’s War
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/65/a2649765.shtml

Oral Histories – The Normandy Invasion
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq109-2.htm

Retired Yeoman Chief Petty Officer Ray Perez
“He was a yeoman on “Easy Red” sector of Omaha Beach with the 6th Beach Battalion … Beach battalions were a new kind of unit in World War II, often described as traffic cops for the invasion.”
Ensign Susan D. Henson
Navy News Service
http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/heroes/perez.html

Walter J. (Bud) Wieser
Mr. Wieser’s story and the accompanying photographs are part of an effort by the State of South Dakota to preserve the experiences of South Dakotans in World War II. Mr. Wieser’s story is also accompanied by a schematic of the LST landing craft (Landing Ship Tank).
State of South Dakota
href="http://www.state.sd.us/military/VetAffairs/sdwwiimemorial/SubPages/stories/story7.htm#wieser">http://www.state.sd.us/military/VetAffairs/sdwwiimemorial/SubPages/stories/story7.htm#wieser

WWII : The People’s War
“An Archive of World War II Memories”
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/categories/c54665/

Go to: Oral/Personal Histories
Go to: Table of Contents


Participants & Actions


See also: Air Operations
See also: Coast Guard
See also: Naval Operations

Allied Troops

Pointe du Hoc, 2nd Ranger Battalion

Army Assault Forces

Ranger Battalions

Cassidy’s Battalion

Seabees

501st Parachute Infantry Regiment

16th Infantry Regiment

506th Infantry Parachute Regiment

Tanks

4th Infantry Division

Third Battalion, 325th Glider

Order of Battle – U.S. Army


Allied Troops Involved in D-Day

Allied Troops
D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/faq.htm#troops

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Army (U.S.) Assault Forces – Normandy, 6-7 June 1944

Army Assault Forces
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
http://www.army.mil/d-day/forces.html

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Cassidy’s Battalion (6 June 1944)

S.L.A. Marshall
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 BA 9
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/cassidy/cassidy.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/cassidy/cassidy.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


501st Parachute Infantry Regiment

“The Fight at the [Le Barquette] Lock” (6 June 1944)

S.L.A. Marshall
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 BB 2
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lock/lock.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lock/lock.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


506th Infantry Parachute Regiment in Normandy Drop (6 June 1944)

S.L.A. Marshall
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 BB 3
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/506-nor/506-nor.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/506-nor/506-nor.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


4th Infantry Division: D-Day Actions

“The mission of the 4th Infantry Division in the invasion of the continent was to land at Beaches Tare (Green) and Uncle (Red) on Utah Beach at 060630 June 1944 and move inland to link up with units of the 82nd Airborne and 101st Airborne Divisions … then, in conjunction with the follow-on divisions … to seize the port of Cherbourg.”

Pages 11-12, 4th Infantry Division – Brief History
4th Infantry Division Museum
U.S. Army
http://www.hood.army.mil/4id/about/museum/documents/history.pdf (PDF)

Go to: Participants & Actions
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Order of Battle – U.S. Army

Order of Battle of the United States Army World War II : European Theatre of Operations
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/ETO-OB/ETOOB-TOC.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/ETO-OB/ETOOB-TOC.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Pointe du Hoc, 2nd Ranger Battalion (6 June 1944)

“Between Grandcamp and the Omaha sector, the flat Norman tableland terminates abruptly in rocky cliffs. At Pointe du Hoe, these are 85 to 100 feet high … The Ranger Group, attached to the 116th Infantry and commanded by Lt. Col. James E. Rudder, was given the mission of capturing Pointe du Hoe and neutralizing the dangerous German coastal battery.”

Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/smallunit/smallunit-pdh.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/smallunit/smallunit-pdh.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Ranger Battalions of World War II

Includes information about Ranger activities during the Normandy campaign
75th Ranger Regiment
href="http://www.soc.mil/75thrr/75thrrww2.html">http://www.soc.mil/75thrr/75thrrww2.html

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Seabees [Naval Construction Regiment]

The Seabees [Naval Construction Regiment] in World War II
Site includes information about the Seabees in the Normandy Invasion
“During D-Day of the Normandy invasion, 6 June 1944, the Seabees were among the first to go ashore as members of naval combat demolition units. … .After the invasion fleet had arrived off the coast, The approximately 10,000 Seabees of Naval Construction
Regiment 25 began manhandling their pontoon causeways onto the beach. … by July 4, only 28 days after D-day, they had helped land more than a million Allied fighting men.”
Naval Historical Center

http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq67-3.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


16th Infantry Regiment

Journal Entries : 6-17 June 1944

Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Journal_entries.pdf (PDF)

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Tank Regiments – D-Day/Normandy

Tanks at D-Day – The Tank Museum, Bovington, England

German:
Panzer Regiment 22
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/panzer.html

Allied Forces:
Fifth Royal Tank Regiment
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-tank-regiment.html
The 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards

http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-dragoon-guards.html
The Grenadier Guards
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/grenadier.html
The Royal Army Service Corps
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/army-service.html
The Royal Engineers
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-engineers.html
Sixth Airborne Reconnaissance Regiment
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/6th-airborne.html

The Staffordshire Yeomanry
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/staffordshire-yeomanry.html
The 13th/18th Royal Hussars (Queen Mary’s Own)
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-hussars.html
The Westminster Dragoons – 2nd County of London
Yeomanry
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/westminster.html

66th Armoured Regiment (The “Iron Knights”)

“The 66th Armored Regiment is the oldest Armored unit in the United States Army … June 1944, the Regiment went into action on the European Continent, landing on the Normandy beaches on D+3. A week later the Regiment decisively defeated the German 6th Parachute Regiment and the 37th SS Panzer Regiment near Carentan, France.”

U.S. Department of Defense

http://www.2ndarmoredhellonwheels.com/units/66th.html#66th Armored Regiment:

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Third Battalion, 325th Glider Infantry

“The Forcing of the Merderet Causeway at La Fiere, France” (9 June 1944)
S.L.A. Marshall
“These facts were developed at a battalion critique in Leicester, England, on 2-3 August, 1944, with all surviving officers and NCOs present. In the narrative, the witnesses are self-identifying.”
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 BB 4
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lafiere/325-LaF.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/lafiere/325-LaF.htm

Go to: Participants & Actions
Go to: Table of Contents


Photographs

America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
Search this database using the term D-Day. Choose the “Match this exact phrase” option. There are 78 D-Day photos in this collection. All but one are from D-Day in New York City, including the D-Day Rally held in Madison Square, religious services on D-Day and Times Square on D-Day.

American Memory Collection, Library of Congress
href="http://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/fsaallquery.html">http://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/fsaallquery.htmlhttp://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/fsaallquery.html

The D-Day Landings
Photographs
Naval Historical Center
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4.htm

D-Day Landings on Omaha Beach
Photographs
Naval Historical Center
Part I:
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o.htm
Part II:
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o2.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o2.htm
Offshore Activities:

href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o5.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4o5.htm

D-Day Landings on Utah Beach
“Online Library of Selected Images
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/nor4u.htm

D-Day Planes
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force

Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF017b.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF017b.jpg

German Army Headquarters in Normandy attacked by fighter-bombers of the Second Tactical Air Force
Photograph
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 4
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF019a.jpg

Normandy Invasion – 6 June 1944
Photographs
Naval Historical Center
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/normandy.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/normandy.htm

Normandy Invasion – June 1944
U.S. Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force & Army Signal Corps photos taken during the Normandy Invasion
Naval Historical Center
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/normandy.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-eur/normandy/normandy.htm

The Normandy Invasion: The Story in Pictures
The Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/normandy/pictures.html">http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/normandy/pictures.html

U.S.S. Ancon

The U.S.S. Ancon was command ship for the “Omaha” Beach assault.
Official U.S. Navy Photographs
Catholic Mass on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231759.jpg
Protestant Church Service on board the U.S.S. Ancon, 3 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g231758.jpg
Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., USN, Commander Task Force 124, the ‘Omaha’ Beach Assault Force on board USS Ancon (AGC-4) during the Normandy invasion, June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g50000/g59419.jpg

Senior U.S. Army officers on board USS Ancon (AGC-4), 5 June 1944
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h99000/h99216.jpg

Go to: Photographs
Go to: Table of Contents


Pointe du Hoc

Pointe du Hoc is a high rocky cliff overlooking both the Utah and Omaha landing beaches. The Germans had fortified the position at the time of the D-Day invasion as part of their Atlantic Wall defenses. It was the D-Day assignment of the 2nd Ranger Battalion (American) under the command of Lt. Colonel James Rudder to scale these cliffs and neutralize any guns or troops on the cliff. While there were no major artillery pieces on the cliff, there were a number of machine gun and flak gun posts. The Rangers gained the top of the cliff at approximately 7.00am on D-Day.

“As the battle raged at Juno, Sword and Gold, on Omaha and Utah, you took devastating casualties. But you also took control of these commanding heights. Around 9:00 a.m., two Rangers discovered the big guns hidden inland and disabled them with heat grenades. At that moment, you became the first Americans on D-Day to complete your mission.”
(Above from 50th Anniversary speech, President William Clinton, see below)

There is some confusion re the spelling of Pointe du Hoc. The local spelling is Hoc, though there are some French documents which use the spelling Hoe. Both spellings are found in the histories of the period.

Army Rangers at Pointe du Hoc, 6 June 1944
U.S. Navy Official Photograph
The U.S. National Archives
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g40000/g45716.jpg

Lieutenant Commander Knapper and Chief Yeoman Cook, of USS Texas (BB-35), examine a damaged German pillbox at Pointe du Hoc on “D-Day”, 6 June 1944.
U.S. Navy Official Photograph
The U.S. National Archives
http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/g230000/g235595.jpg

Pointe du Hoc Ranger Monument
Photo and descriptive text
American Battle Monuments Commission
http://www.abmc.gov/memorials/memorials/ph.php

Pointe du Hoc, 2nd Ranger Battalion (6 June 1944)
“Between Grandcamp and the Omaha sector, the flat Norman tableland terminates abruptly in rocky cliffs. At Pointe du Hoe, these are 85 to 100 feet high … The Ranger Group, attached to the 116th Infantry and commanded by Lt. Col. James E. Rudder, was given the mission of capturing Pointe du Hoe and neutralizing the dangerous German coastal battery.”
Center of Military History
U.S. Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/smallunit/smallunit-pdh.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/smallunit/smallunit-pdh.htm

Speech at the U.S. Ranger Monument on the 40th Anniversary of D-Day
President Ronald Reagan, 6 June 1984
“These are the boys of Pointe du Hoc. These are the men who took the cliffs. These are the champions who helped free a continent. These are the heroes who helped end a war.”
Air War College

http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/speeches/reagan_d-day.htm

Speech at the U.S. Ranger Monument on the 50th Anniversary of D-Day
President William J. Clinton, 6 June 1994
“Your mission was to scale these cliffs and destroy the howitzers at the top that threatened every Allied soldier and ship within miles. You fired grappling hooks onto the cliff tops. You waded to shore and you began to climb — up on ropes slick with sea and sand — up, as the Germans shot down and tried to cut your lines. Up, sometimes holding to the cliffs with nothing but the knives you had and your own bare hands.”

The U.S. National Archives
http://clinton6.nara.gov/1994/06/1994-06-06-president-speech-at-pointe-du-hoc-normandy-france.html

Remarks on the 60th Anniversary of D-Day in Colleville-sur-Mer, France
President George W. Bush, 6 June 2004
“All who fought saw images of pain and death, raw and relentless. The men of D-day also witnessed scenes they would proudly and faithfully recount, scenes of daring and self-giving that went beyond anything the Army or the country could ask … The ranks of the Allied Expeditionary Force were filled with men who did a specific assigned task, from clearing mines to unloading boats to scaling cliffs, whatever the danger, whatever the cost. And the sum of this duty was an unstoppable force. By the end of June 6th, 1944, more than 150,000 Allied soldiers had breached Fortress Europe.”
site maintained by the American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=72648&st=&st1=

Go to: Pointe du Hoc
Go to: Table of Contents


Preparations & Planning


See also: Air Operations
See also: Naval Operations
See also: Quartermasters
See also: Weather

Cairo-Tehran Conferences

Pre Invasion Air Attacks

The Campaign in North-West Europe

Prelude to Invasion

Cross Channel Attack

Prelude to Operation Overlord

D-Day Planning – Allied Command

Preparing for D-Day

Exercise Tiger

The Quadrant Conference

History of COSSAC

The Role of the British Meteorological Office

Invasion Plans & Preparations

The Sextant & Eureka Conferences

Manuscripts

Training Exercises for Operation Neptune

The Normandy Invasion – The Debate

The Trident Conference

Outline of Operation Overlord


The Cairo-Tehran Conferences

Allies United After Tehran Conference
Audio Clip – Originally Broadcast on 6 December 1943
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/1/newsid_3535000/3535949.stm

Overlord versus the Mediterranean at the Cairo-Tehran Conferences
Richard M. Leighton
Chapter 10, Command Decisions
U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.history.army.mil/books/70-7_0.htm">http://www.history.army.mil/books/70-7_0.htm

Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin at Tehran
Video and Audio Clips from: “The War, 1941–1944″
(a wartime documentary by the U.S. State Department)
U.S. National Archives
Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40516

Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill at Tehran
U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo
Office of War Information Collection, Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/images/wc0206-3c04520r.jpg

Summary of the Third Regular Session of the Tehran Meeting
30 November 1943
W. Averell Harriman Papers, Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/images/wc0208s.jpg

The Tehran Conference: 28 November-1 December 1943
Declaration of the Three Powers
Declaration of the Three Powers Regarding Iran
Military Conclusions of the Tehran Conference
The Avalon Project, Yale Law School
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/tehran.htm

Three Knights Slay a Monster
“These color postcards were painted to commemorate the Tehran Conference by placing contemporary characters in a Persian legend. According to the tale, an evil despot (Hitler) once ruled by terror, decapitating men to feed their brains to the snakes (shown as Italian and Japanese) that grew from his shoulders. Three knights (Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill) appeared, first in a dream and later in reality, to destroy the tyrant and restore justice.”
W. Averell Harriman Papers, Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/images/wc0207.jpg

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The Campaign in North-West Europe

The Campaign in North-West Europe : The Plan and the Invasion of Normandy, June 1944
Chapter IX
The Canadian Army 1939-1945
Official History of the Canadian Army

Department of National Defense
http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/Canada/CA/OpSumm/OpSumm-11.html

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Cross Channel Attack

“This particular volume deals with the planning and the difficulties encountered incident to the mounting of the largest amphibious assault ever undertaken in military history.”
Gordon A. Harrison
CMH Publication 7-4
Office of the Chief of Military History
Department of the Army
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/7-4/7-4_cont.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/7-4/7-4_cont.htm

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D-Day Planning – Allied Command

Imperial War Museum, London
http://london.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/4/dday/index.htm

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Exercise Tiger


See also: Utah Beach

The Allied Troops rehearsed for months before the actual landings. Exercise Tiger was the name of the exercise which simulated (as far as possible), the anticipated conditions that troops would encounter during the actual landings on Utah Beach.

Ceremony Honors Hundreds Killed in Training Exercises for D-Day

Stars & Stripes
http://ww2.pstripes.osd.mil/01/apr01/ed042201f.html

Exercise Tiger
“In preparing for the Normandy Invasion, the United States Army conducted various training exercises at Slapton Sands in Start Bay and in the nearby Tor Bay, beginning on December 15, 1943. … it was an almost perfect place to simulate the Normandy landings. … TIGER was the code name of the training exercise for the Utah Beach assault forces under Admiral Don P. Moon. It was held from April 22-30, 1944.”
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq20-1.htm

The Exercise Tiger National Foundation

http://www.exercisetiger.org/index.htm

“Slapton Sands “The Cover Up that Never Was”
Charles B. MacDonald
Naval Historical Center
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq20-2.htm

Tiger – The E-Boat Attack
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil/d-day/tiger.htm

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History of COSSAC (Chief of Staff to Supreme Allied Commander) 1943 – 1944

“It was agreed at Casablanca [January 1943] … that the work of preparing for the grand assault on the fortress of Europe must go forward … For the present it was decided to appoint a Chief of Staff to the Supreme Commander, under whom would be established a United States–British staff … It was expected that the Supreme Commander ultimately to be appointed would be a British general and that he would have an American deputy, so the nomination of the Chief of Staff was decided on parallel lines. Lieut-General F. E. Morgan was appointed to this post, with Brig-General R. W. Barker, of the U.S. Army, (who had previously been associated with the Combined Commanders) as his deputy. To these men accordingly
fell the task of building up the organization which was to plan the allied invasion of North-West Europe.”
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.6A CA
U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/cossac/Cossac.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/cossac/Cossac.htm

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Invasion Plans & Preparations

Invasion Plans and Preparations
Veteran Affairs Canada
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/general_f/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/normandy/invasion (French)

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Manuscripts

Manuscripts relating to the Planning of Operation Overlord held in the Eisenhower Presidential Library
Eisenhower Presidential Library
Scroll down to: Prelude to Operations Overlord section
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/ddaypage.html (PDF)

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The Normandy Invasion: Planning: The Debate & the Preparations

U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/Normandy/planning.html">http://www.history.army.mil/html/reference/Normandy/planning.html

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Outline of Operation Overlord

“This manuscript was prepared by the Historical Section of the G-4 of the Communications Zone, European Theater of Operations (COMZ, ETOUSA) as volume seven of its multi-volume manuscript organizational history.”
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.4 AA Vol. 7
U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/g4-OL/g4-OL.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/g4-OL/g4-OL.htm

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Pre Invasion Air Attacks

Pre Invasion Air Attacks
Map
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 8
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
href="http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg">http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/WH2-2RAF/WH2-2RAF021a.jpg

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Prelude to Invasion

Prelude to Invasion
New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force
Vol. II, Chapter 9
Official Histories of New Zealand in the Second World War
Victoria University’s New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c9.html

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Preparing for D-Day

The D-Day Museum, Portsmouth, England
http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk/memory_prepare.htm

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The Quadrant Conference, August 1943

Suggestions and Discussions re the Outline Plan for Operation Overlord
Papers and Minutes of Meetings
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Quadrant_Conference.pdf (PDF)

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The Role of the British Meteorological Office in the Planning for D-Day

“The Weather Forecast that Changed History”
150 Years: Celebrating the Past, Looking to the Future, page 21
The Meteorological Office, U.K.
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/annualreport0304/MetOfficeAnnualReportandAccounts0304.pdf (PDF)

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The Sextant and Eureka Conferences, November-December 1943

These conferences concentrated on the “Effect of Weather on Operation Overlord” and “Amphibious Operations against the South of France.”
Papers and Minutes
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Sextant_and_Eureka_Conferences.pdf (PDF)

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Training Exercises for Operation Neptune

This is section 7 of Lt. Clifford L. Jones’ work Neptune : Training, Mounting, the Artificial Ports and describes Exercises Duck I, Duck II,
Duck III, Fox, Tiger and Fabius, as well as other miscellaneous training exercises and rehearsals.
Historical Manuscripts Collection 8-3.1 AA Vol. 6
U.S. Army Center of Military History
href="http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-7.htm">http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/documents/wwii/beaches/bchs-7.htm

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The Trident Conference, May 1943

Trident Minutes, Combined Chiefs of Staff
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Trident_Conference.pdf (PDF)

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President Franklin D. Roosevelt

FDR’s D-Day Prayer
Roosevelt Presidential Library
href="http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odddayp.html">http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odddayp.html (Text)

href="http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/real/dday.rm">http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/real/dday.rm
(Audio)

FDR’s Press Conference on D-Day
Roosevelt Presidential Library
href="http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odddaypc.html">http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/odddaypc.html

Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin at Tehran
Video and Audio Clips from: “The War, 1941–1944″
(a wartime documentary by the U.S. State Department)
U.S. National Archives
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40516

Go to: President Roosevelt
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Prime Minister Churchill

Prime Minister Churchill visits the Southampton Docks Staging Area for D-Day
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/65×8011.jpg

Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin at Tehran
Video and Audio Clips from: “The War, 1941–1944″ (a wartime documentary by the U.S. State Department)
U.S. National Archives
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40516

Speeches by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on 6 June 1944
The Churchill Society, London
href="http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/InvaFrnc.html">http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/InvaFrnc.html

Go to: Prime Minister Churchill
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Quartermasters

Fueling Up for D-Day
“WWII gasoline supply in England in support of the invasion of France, June 6, 1944″
Quartermaster Technical Bulletin – 26 Oct 1944
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmfound.com/fueling_up_for_d-day.htm

Invasion!
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil/d-day/invasion.htm

Quartermasters on D-Day
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmmuseum.lee.army.mil/d-day/d-day.htm

Go to: Quartermasters

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Tanks

D-Day Tanks.org.uk
The Tank Museum, Bovington, England
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/

Go to: Tanks
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D-Day/Normandy Tank Regiments – The Tank Museum, Bovington, England

German:
Panzer Regiment 22
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/panzer.html

Allied Forces:
Fifth Royal Tank Regiment
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-tank-regiment.html
The 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-dragoon-guards.html
The Grenadier Guards
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/grenadier.html

The Royal Army Service Corps
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/army-service.html
The Royal Engineers
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-engineers.html
Sixth Airborne Reconnaissance Regiment
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/6th-airborne.html
The Staffordshire Yeomanry
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/staffordshire-yeomanry.html
The 13th/18th Royal Hussars (Queen Mary’s Own)
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/royal-hussars.html
The Westminster Dragoons – 2nd County of London Yeomanry
http://www.d-daytanks.org.uk/regiments/westminster.html

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The Sherman Tank in Normandy, 1944

Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://search.eb.com/dday/art-40557

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The Tanks that didn’t Land on D-Day

30 May 2002
“On 6 June 1944, a unit of 29 amphibious tanks launched from Allied ships to attack the Nazi-held Normandy beaches – only two made land. Brett Phaneuf went in search of those lost beneath the waves for almost 60 years.”

BBC News – World Edition
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2016280.stm

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Underwater Archaeology


See also: Naval Operations

25 August 2003
Archaeological Remote Sensing Survey of Operation Neptune: The D-Day Landings at Omaha and Utah Beaches, Normandy, France
James S. Schmidt

Naval Historical Center
href="http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/org12-7k.htm">http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/org12-7k.htm

13 April 2003
Underwater Archeologists Complete WWII Normandy Landings Survey with Hi-Tech Aid
“Naval Historical Center (NHC) archaeologists just completed a three-year archaeological remote-sensing survey of U.S. Navy shipwrecks lost off France’s coastline during the 1944 Normandy invasion. The survey focused on locating Navy losses and the temporary harbors used in Neptune, the naval portion of Operation Overlord.”
13 April 2003 issue
Navy Newstand
http://www.news.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=6817

2003
Providing the Third Dimension : High-resolution, Multibeam Sonar as a Tool for Archaeological Investigations : An Example from the D-Day Beaches at Normandy
Larry A. Mayer and Brian Calder, Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire; James S. Schmidt, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, Washington, DC and Chris Malzone, Reson Inc. Goleta, California
This paper was presented at the U.S. 2003 Hydrographic Conference held in Biloxi, Mississippi
http://ccom.unh.edu/dday/dday.htm (HTML)
http://ccom.unh.edu/dday/article.pdf (PDF)

30 May 2002
The Tanks that didn’t Land on D-Day
“On 6 June 1944, a unit of 29 amphibious tanks launched from Allied ships to attack the Nazi-held Normandy beaches – only two made land. Brett Phaneuf went in search of those lost beneath the waves for almost 60 years.”

BBC News – World Edition
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2016280.stm

6 January 2002
The Underwater Archaeology of D-Day
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/archaeology/excavations_techniques/marine_dday_underwater_01.shtml

1 June 2000
Nautical archaeologists begin underwater mapping, preservation of D-Day invasion site
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Texas A & M University
http://ina.tamu.edu/neptunenews.htm

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War Graves & Memorials

American Battle Monuments Commission
“The American Battle Monuments Commission is a small independent agency of the Executive Branch of the federal government. It is responsible for: [1] commemorating the services of the American Armed Forces where they have served since April 6, 1917 (the date of U.S. entry into World War I); [2] through the establishment of suitable memorial shrines; designing, constructing, operating and maintaining permanent American military burial grounds in foreign countries; [3] for controlling the design and construction of U.S. military monuments and markers in foreign countries by other U.S. citizens and organizations, both public and private; and [4]
encouraging the maintenance of such monuments and markers by their sponsors.
http://www.abmc.gov/

The Battle of Normandy – Sites and Museums
Association of Sites and Museums of the Battle of Normandy
Association des sites & Musées de la Bataille de Normandie
http://www.normandie-tourisme.fr/normandy-tourism/main-menu/things-to-do/sites-and-attractions/d-day-and-the-battle-of-normandy-172-2.html

Bayeux Memorial, France
Veterans Affairs Canada
“The Bayeux Memorial honours those men of the land forces of the British Commonwealth and Empire who fell in the early stages of the campaign in northwest Europe of 1945 and have no known grave.”
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=memorials/ww2mem/bayeux">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=memorials/ww2mem/bayeux (English)
href="http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers_f/sub.cfm?source=memorials/ww2mem/bayeux">http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers_f/sub.cfm?source=memorials/ww2mem/bayeux (French)

Canadian Virtual War Memorial

Veterans Affairs Canada
http://www.virtualmemorial.gc.ca/

Commonwealth War Graves Commission
“The Commission was established by Royal Charter in 1917. Its duties are to mark and maintain the graves of the members of the forces of the Commonwealth who were killed in the two World Wars, to build memorials to those who have no known grave and to keep records and registers, including, after the Second World War, a record of the Civilian War Dead.”
http://www.cwgc.org/

Crosses at Normandy – June 1944
COL Elbert E. Legg
“This narrative relates some of my personal experiences as a sergeant squad leader in the 603rd Quartermaster Graves Registration Company in the first days of the Allied invasion at Normandy, France, in June 1944.”

Quartermaster Professional Bulletin – Autumn/Winter 1994
Army Quartermaster Museum
http://www.qmfound.com/crosses.htm

French Civilians place Crosses at the Graves of American Soldiers in a Cemetery on Omaha Beach
Photograph
Eisenhower Presidential Library
http://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/ddayphotos/75×64.jpg

German War Graves Commission
Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e.V.
(This site is in German)
http://www.volksbund.de/

Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial
“The World War II Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial is situated on a cliff overlooking Omaha Beach and the English Channel in Colleville-sur Mer, France. … The cemetery is located on the site of the temporary American St. Laurent Cemetery, established by the U.S. First Army on June 8, 1944, the first American cemetery on European soil in World War II.”
American Battle Monuments Commission
http://www.abmc.gov/cemeteries/cemeteries/no.php

Pointe du Hoc Ranger Monument
Photo and descriptive text
American Battle Monuments Commission
http://www.abmc.gov/memorials/memorials/ph.php

Utah Beach American Memorial
“The World War II Utah Beach American Memorial is located … approximately a mile and a half northeast of Sainte-Marie-du-Mont (Manche), France.”
American Battle Monuments Commission
http://www.abmc.gov/memorials/memorials/ut.php

Go to: War Graves & Memorials
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Weather

D-Day Forecasts
“The Weather Notebook is a production of the Mount Washington Observatory and supported by the National Science Foundation.”
James Fleming
The Weather Notebook
http://www.weathernotebook.org/transcripts/2001/06/04.html

D-Day Weather
“It was decided that the senior meteorologists of the Meteorological Office, the Naval Meteorological Service and the Weather Service of the United States Army Air Force, would work independently on predicting the likely weather patterns. Dr Stagg of the British Meteorological Office, seconded as a Group Captain in the RAF, was appointed as the co-ordinating forecaster to brief the Supreme Commander and his staff.”
BBC Weather
http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/dday.shtml

James Martin Stagg
Group Captain Stagg, a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, was the Chief Meteorological Adviser to General Eisenhower at the time of the Normandy Invasion. Group Captain Stagg headed a committe of meteorologists, but it was Stagg who told General Eisenhower that they expected a brief break in the weather which could allow the Invasion to take place. General Eisenhower
based his decision to begin the Invasion on this recommendation.
Britannica Online
http://search.eb.com/normandy/articles/Stagg_James_Martin.html
N.B….This site is no longer active, but has been kept in the bibliography for purposes of historical continuity.

James Martin Stagg
Photo
British Broadcasting Corporation
http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/weather/images/d_day/james_stagg120.jpg

The Most Important Forecast in History
Erick Brenstrum, Lead Forecaster, Meteorological Service of New Zealand

Meteorological Service of New Zealand
http://www.metservice.co.nz/public/learning/d-day.html

The Role of the British Meteorological Office in the Planning for D-Day
The Meteorological Office, U.K.
http://london.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/4/dday/pdfs/DDayWeather.pdf (PDF)

The Sextant and Eureka Conferences, November-December 1943
These conferences concentrated on the “Effect of Weather on Operation Overlord” and “Amphibious Operations against the South of France.”
Papers and Minutes
Eisenhower Presiential Library
http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Research/Digital_Documents/DDay/New%20PDFs/Sextant_and_Eureka_Conferences.pdf (PDF)

WWII Weathermen made a Most Important Forecast
Air Force Weather Historian, Summer 2003, vol. 1, Issue 3
http://www.airweaassn.org/afw_historian/AFW%20Historian%20Newsletter%201-3.pdf (PDF)

Go to: Weather
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Prepared by
Grace-Ellen McCrann
Chief, Government Documents Division
The City College of New York
Cohen Library
160 Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031
gemscot@yahoo.com
June 3, 2009

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